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Cassiterite is used to make Tin

In parts of Central Africa, mining of rare minerals used for mobile telephones and other fashionable expertise is pushing already endangered animals to the brink of extinction. A brand new examine performed by Wildlife Conservation Society in the Democratic Republic of Congo discovered that mining operations have devastating impacts on wildlife, together with species that stay within protected areas such as the Itombwe Nature Reserve, an essential forested habitat for nice apes. The biodiverse area is house to populations of the endangered japanese chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and the critically endangered Grauer’s gorilla subspecies (Gorilla beringei graueri), whose numbers have fallen by 77 p.c over the past two a long time due to poaching – a few of which is propelled by close by mining sites. The gorillas stay in massive groups, will be readily tracked and make for simple prey for people working mines that are often militia-managed and positioned illegally inside nature reserves. WCS researcher Charlotte Spira, lead writer of the research, revealed in June in the journal Oryx, in an announcement.

The miners reported hunted primarily out of necessity as a result of they didn’t produce other sources or protein obtainable on the remote mining areas, which are often controlled by armed militias, not a central government. Many reported they’d a lot rather eat beef, rooster or fish instead of chimpanzee or gorilla. An estimated eight to 10 million people take part in the small-scale mines that claim gold, cassiterite and columbite-tantalite (generally called coltan) from the earth’s deep recesses. Cassiterite is used to make tin, while coltan is utilized in mobile phones and nearly all digital gadgets. Researchers recommend replacing volatile mining earnings with safe, sustainable options for employment. Meanwhile, advocacy teams suggest monitoring the supply chain, shopping for only from respected mines and labeling the tip products “bushmeat free” – a daunting process, contemplating the minerals’ meandering path to the final word buyer. Jennifer Peyser, a mediator with the dispute decision group Resolve, just lately instructed Wired. The Wildlife Conservation Society is encouraging concerned consumers to sign a pledge in opposition to conflict minerals.

Whether you fought on the aspect of the Communists or the South Vietnamese and Americans, it took guts to grab a rifle and wander into the jungles during the Vietnam War. The darkish, dank forests have been a quagmire of swamps, booby traps, snakes and enemy bullets. Do you think you’d be brave enough to combat in these situations? The Vietnam War was a political nightmare, but within the war zone, the grunts known as to arms did not have time to fuss over diplomacy. Do you know what form of rifles they used to attack the enemy? After they ventured out on patrol, do you perceive the sorts of booby traps they feared at every second? Did you know that there were two most important factions fighting for the Communists, and that they usually had vastly totally different tools? One was an everyday army … On the opposite facet, the United States had access to all manner of high-tech weaponry. Can you establish the machine guns the Americans used, and do you know how nicely (or poorly) those guns labored in the usually-squalid situations of Vietnam?

Most of the weapons America dropped at bear in WWII had been practically useless in Vietnam, which featured a whole new enemy in a very completely different setting. Let’s see if you can gather your platoon and make sense of the weapons and vehicles of the Vietnam War! Which weapon became the usual service rifle for U.S. Through the war, the M16 assault rifle turned the usual weapon for U.S. Its blend of metallic and plastics was a hanging departure from old wood-primarily based designs. The M16 was meant as a replacement for the M14. The M14 was itself a substitute for the M1 Garand, which had served as a powerful weapon during WWII. The North Vietnamese relied closely on the AK-47, an assault rifle made well-known within the USSR following WWII. The weapon was dependable, rugged and deadly. Napalm is jellied gasoline. It was often loaded into canisters and dropped into the jungles, the place it incinerated nearly every thing.

The MiG-21 was a Soviet-made jet fighter that harassed American planes throughout the conflict. Its velocity and maneuverability made it a worthy adversary. The U.S. used many cluster bombs throughout the war. One huge bomb would detonate and then blast smaller bombs all around the place, significantly increasing the weapon’s effectiveness. Claymores were directional antipersonnel mines used by U.S. The VC typically captured these mines and used them as booby traps which could maim and dismember American troops. The VC typically set Punji stick traps, sharpened sticks meant to wound enemy troopers. Often, the sticks had been concealed in a deep hole that was then lined for concealment. Then, passing troops would fall and impale themselves on the sticks. The M60 was a belt-fed gentle machine gun introduced at the tip of the 1950s. It was often operated in groups — one individual to shoot, while one or more men carried the ammo.

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