In addition to the right to union representation and participation, the NLRA allowed employees to engage in collective bargaining and protected concerted activities — with or without a union — that attempt to improve working conditions. As we mentioned earlier, a strike is when a group of workers stops working in protest to labor conditions or as a bargaining tool during negotiations between labor and management. Another powerful union tool is the strike. There is significant debate about whether or not strikes are effective, but there may be circumstances where a strike is a necessary last resort for a union. Secondary boycotts were a measure used in lieu of or in addition to a traditional strike. For example, if brewery workers had a problem with their employer, they might set up a secondary boycott of the glass company that supplied bottles to their brewery, thereby putting pressure on the brewery by protesting against its supplier.
Significantly, the LMRA outlawed secondary boycotts. Also known as the Taft-Hartley Labor Act, the LMRA amended parts of the NLRA. In order to stem the number of strikes, the LMRA enlarged the National Labor Relations Board, firmly establishing its control over labor disputes. The act also created the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) as the organization to enforce the NLRA. The act was also passed because of a concern about union involvement in organized crime, a lack of transparency in union activities and a lack of democracy within unions. The LMRDA’s provisions include freedom of speech and assembly, protection from undeserved punishment, a vote in determing dues and fees, and the right to file suit and to participate in union activities. It was a case of the right people meeting the right moment with the right ideas. This basic right gives them much more power than if they were to negotiate individually. By establishing employees’ basic rights to join unions and engage in collective bargaining, Congress hoped to reduce work stoppages, strikes and other conflicts between labor and management that had all too often resulted in violence.
Jimmy Hoffa was the legendary leader of the Teamsters, notorious for his connections to organized crime but also considered by some to be a heroic labor leader. The Teamsters are especially famous for their one-time leader Jimmy Hoffa, whose son is now the union’s president. Other prominent unions include the United Auto Workers, the Service Employees International Union and the International Brotherhood of Teamsters. Through their CBAs and the grievance and arbitration processes, unions help to protect their employees from unjust dismissal. Therefore, most union employees cannot be fired without “just cause,” unlike many nonunion employees who are considered “at-will” employees and can be fired at any time and for almost any reason. It changed how music was created, how it was marketed, even who got a say in how the business of music was run. Determined to control their own destinies, they started Apple Records in 1968. Despite a legal settlement with Apple Computer in 1981 stating that Apple Computer would never go into the music business, Apple Computer established iTunes, prompting another lawsuit, which Apple Records lost. This group is the iconic British Invasion band and cut a deal regarding music sales with Steve Jobs back in the 1970s. Who are they?
The 1960s saw a cultural phenomenon sweep America, changing tastes in music and all the attendant popular culture connected with it. A union would set up a picket line at a company — one with which the union did not have a labor dispute — to pressure it to not do business with another company that was involved in a labor dispute with the union. Like Ford paying high wages for his workers, much of it has to do with having a broader vision than simply managing the “ins and outs” of a given business. They may also be workers from the same business sector, employed by different companies. You may want a low-stress job and preferably few interruptions. If you like to run in the cold, or wear gloves, you might want to steer clear of devices that use touch-screen controls. If you want to record your swimming sessions, you’ll need a fitness watch that is water resistant.